DOI

The ability of HIV-1 to replicate and to establish long-term reservoirs is strongly influenced by T cell activation. Through the use of membrane-tethered, genetically encoded calcium (Ca2+) indicators, we were able to detect for the first time, to our knowledge, the formation of Ca2+ territories and determine their role in coordinating the functional signaling nanostructure of the synaptic membrane. Consequently, we report a previously unknown immune subversion mechanism involving HIV-1 exploitation, through its Nef accessory protein, of the interconnectivity among three evolutionarily conserved cellular processes: vesicle traffic, signaling compartmentalization, and the second messenger Ca2+ We found that HIV-1 Nef specifically associates with the traffic regulators MAL and Rab11b compelling the vesicular accumulation of Lck. Through its association with MAL and Rab11b, Nef co-opts Lck switchlike function driving the formation Ca2+ membrane territories, which, in turn, control the fusion of LAT-transporting Rab27 and Rab37 vesicles and the formation of LAT nanoclusters at the immunological synapse. Consequently, HIV-1 Nef disengages TCR triggering from the generation of p-LAT and p-SLP nanoclusters driving TCR signal amplification and diversification. Altogether our results indicate that HIV-1 exploits the interconnectivity among vesicle traffic, Ca2+ membrane territories, and signaling nanoclusters to modulate T cell signaling and function.
Original languageEnglish
Article number10.4049/jimmunol.1601132
Pages (from-to)042-4052
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Immunology
Volume11
Issue number197
DOIs
StatePublished - 19 Oct 2016

ID: 1972213