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An experimental approach for smelting tin ores from Northwestern Iberia. / Figueiredo, Elin; Lackinger, Aaron; Comendador Rey, Beatriz; Silva, Rui J C; Veiga, João P.; Mirão, José.

Vol. 32, No. 7-8, 11.06.2017, p. 765-774.

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

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Figueiredo E, Lackinger A, Comendador Rey B, Silva RJC, Veiga JP, Mirão J. An experimental approach for smelting tin ores from Northwestern Iberia. 2017 Jun 11;32(7-8):765-774. Available from, DOI: 10.1080/10426914.2016.1244837

Author

Figueiredo, Elin ; Lackinger, Aaron ; Comendador Rey, Beatriz ; Silva, Rui J C ; Veiga, João P. ; Mirão, José. / An experimental approach for smelting tin ores from Northwestern Iberia. 2017 ; Vol. 32, No. 7-8. pp. 765-774

BibTeX

@article{8ff60e4262714ed2a323f008bf4cb4b0,
title = "An experimental approach for smelting tin ores from Northwestern Iberia",
abstract = "In the present work microstructural and chemical analysis of tin and slag that resulted from three smelting experiments reconstructing prehistoric conditions are presented. Cassiterite ores were collected from northwestern (NW) Iberian deposits and were smelted in a small open pit. Results show that the loss in tin can be very high, up to 80%, mainly as a result of volatilization of Sn species. The experiments show that using handmade leather bag bellows and clay tuyeres, temperatures can easily reach >1200°C. The tin produced was a very pure (Sn) solid solution, with the presence of dispersed inclusions or phases of various composition. These included FeSn and FeSn2 intermetallics and small metallic W inclusions. Slags could be grouped into three types based on their physical characteristics, and bulk chemical analysis could relate each type as being a product from the reaction of ore material or a product from the reaction with the crucible material. Generally, it was found that in spite of very low recovery rates, the tin produced by this simple technique would have been adequate for a domestic small-scale production.",
keywords = "Archeometallurgy, cassiterite, Iberia, microstructure, SEM-EDS, smelting, tin, XRD, XRF",
author = "Elin Figueiredo and Aaron Lackinger and {Comendador Rey}, Beatriz and Silva, {Rui J C} and Veiga, {João P.} and José Mirão",
note = "Sem PDF. FEDER funds through the COMPETE 2020 Programme National Funds through FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (UID/CTM/50025/2013; UID/Multi/04449/2013) FCT (SFRH/BPD/97360/2013)",
year = "2017",
month = "6",
doi = "10.1080/10426914.2016.1244837",
volume = "32",
pages = "765--774",
number = "7-8",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - An experimental approach for smelting tin ores from Northwestern Iberia

AU - Figueiredo,Elin

AU - Lackinger,Aaron

AU - Comendador Rey,Beatriz

AU - Silva,Rui J C

AU - Veiga,João P.

AU - Mirão,José

N1 - Sem PDF. FEDER funds through the COMPETE 2020 Programme National Funds through FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (UID/CTM/50025/2013; UID/Multi/04449/2013) FCT (SFRH/BPD/97360/2013)

PY - 2017/6/11

Y1 - 2017/6/11

N2 - In the present work microstructural and chemical analysis of tin and slag that resulted from three smelting experiments reconstructing prehistoric conditions are presented. Cassiterite ores were collected from northwestern (NW) Iberian deposits and were smelted in a small open pit. Results show that the loss in tin can be very high, up to 80%, mainly as a result of volatilization of Sn species. The experiments show that using handmade leather bag bellows and clay tuyeres, temperatures can easily reach >1200°C. The tin produced was a very pure (Sn) solid solution, with the presence of dispersed inclusions or phases of various composition. These included FeSn and FeSn2 intermetallics and small metallic W inclusions. Slags could be grouped into three types based on their physical characteristics, and bulk chemical analysis could relate each type as being a product from the reaction of ore material or a product from the reaction with the crucible material. Generally, it was found that in spite of very low recovery rates, the tin produced by this simple technique would have been adequate for a domestic small-scale production.

AB - In the present work microstructural and chemical analysis of tin and slag that resulted from three smelting experiments reconstructing prehistoric conditions are presented. Cassiterite ores were collected from northwestern (NW) Iberian deposits and were smelted in a small open pit. Results show that the loss in tin can be very high, up to 80%, mainly as a result of volatilization of Sn species. The experiments show that using handmade leather bag bellows and clay tuyeres, temperatures can easily reach >1200°C. The tin produced was a very pure (Sn) solid solution, with the presence of dispersed inclusions or phases of various composition. These included FeSn and FeSn2 intermetallics and small metallic W inclusions. Slags could be grouped into three types based on their physical characteristics, and bulk chemical analysis could relate each type as being a product from the reaction of ore material or a product from the reaction with the crucible material. Generally, it was found that in spite of very low recovery rates, the tin produced by this simple technique would have been adequate for a domestic small-scale production.

KW - Archeometallurgy

KW - cassiterite

KW - Iberia

KW - microstructure

KW - SEM-EDS

KW - smelting

KW - tin

KW - XRD

KW - XRF

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85006852794&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1080/10426914.2016.1244837

DO - 10.1080/10426914.2016.1244837

M3 - Article

VL - 32

SP - 765

EP - 774

IS - 7-8

ER -

ID: 2555815